Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the burden of disease associated with lower limb spasticity (LLS) and its complications in adults.

Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified 9 studies published between November 2012 and July 2019 that assessed the epidemiological burden associated with LLS.

Results: LLS was found to occur in one-third of adults after neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), one quarter to one third with multiple sclerosis, one quarter to half with Parkinson’s disease and roughly half with stroke. LLS reduces mobility and diminishes the quality of life. LLS complications, especially injuries following falls are a common occurrence.

Conclusion: Given the high prevalence among adults with common disorders, such as stroke; the evidence on the burden of LLS is somewhat finite. Further research is needed to explore the trends over time and across different geographical regions in the incidence and prevalence of LLS. The dearth of high-quality evidence for LLS suggests a lack of awareness of the problem and interest in it, and hence, the unmet need among patients and their carers.

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