Aims and Objectives: Most of the vaccine preventable diseases have shown a decline with advent of National immunization schedule but Diphtheria is still present in some region of India. The purpose of this study is to diagnose cases of Diphtheria.

Methods and Materials: This study was performed during August- 2017 to October- 2017 at Bacteriology Laboratory of Microbiology Department, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. Two throat swab received from each suspected patient with detailed clinical and immunization history. One swab was inoculated in selective and enrichment culture media while another was used for microscopic examination for isolation of Corynebacterium diphtheria.

Results: Out of total 118 samples, Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated in 35 samples. Among 35 cases, 16 patients belong to under 5 yr, while 19 belonged to 6-20 yr of age group.

Conclusion: The majority of cases are reported from children who were non- immunized or partially immunized against Diphtheria. Persistance or resurgence of Diphtheria is mainly due to low coverage of primary immunization as well as booster doses and inaccessible areas. Targeted immunization coverage is required specifically in inaccessible areas.

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